Angan languages - Angan languages

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Angan
Kratke Range
EthnicityAngu people
Geographic
distribution
Kratke Range, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
Glottologanga1289[1]
Angan languages.svg
Map: The Angan languages of New Guinea
  The Angan languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Angan or Kratke Range languages are a family of the Trans–New Guinea languages in the classification of Malcolm Ross. The Angan languages are clearly valid as a family. They were first identified as such by J. Lloyd and A. Healey in 1968; Wurm (1975) classified them as Trans–New Guinea. Glottlog treats Angan as a separate or unclassified family, pending further evidence.

The languages are spoken in the Kratke Range of Eastern Highlands Province and adjoining areas of Gulf Province and Morobe Province.[2]

Languages

Ross (2005) classifies the languages as follows:[3][verify this is actually Ross's classification]

Angan

Branch A is defined by the pronouns 1sg ni and 2sg ti. Ankave is not listed in Ross's classification. It has the 1sg pronouns based on ni, but not a 2sg based on ti.

Usher (2020) is both more agnostic and contradicting of Ross's 'A' and 'B' branches:[4]

Kratke Range

Menya is notable for its dyadic kinship terms (terms referring to the relationship two or more people have to each other), which are rare globally and not prevalent in Papua New Guinea (though they also exist in the Oksapmin language).[5]

Pronouns

Ross (1995) reconstructs the pronouns (independent and object prefixes) as follows:[3]

sg du pl
1 *nə, *ni
*nə-
*nʌ, *yʌi
*e(a)-
*nʌi
*na-
2 *gə, *ti
*gə-
*kʌi *sʌi
*se-
3 *gʌ
*u-/*w-
?
(=3sg)
*ku
(=3sg)

Vocabulary comparison

The following basic vocabulary words are from the Trans-New Guinea database:[6]

gloss Ankave Akoye Baruya Hamtai Kamasa Kawacha Menya Safeyoka Simbari Tainae Yagwoia Angaataha
head mɨnga(yi) mɨnggaaya mɨnyagɨnya mnga magɨna munakɨna mnyanga mɨnakɨna minta mɨnggaai mnakɨna mɨtɨ-'o
hair nda'a n̩daa(vɨ') mɨjata mta njisa msa'a mta; nda mɨsa mindata ṃde msaasa mɨsis-a'a
ear haara'a araa kadɨka qata kata'a kaatɨga qata haaraha kaantɨka aarɨ(na) qatisa atɨ'-ɨrɨ
eye sɨmu(yi) aagwaai tɨnna hingo tuma tɨmma hingwa tɨma sɨmta haagwe hina nt-a'a
nose sɨ'ma hamɨ sɨnna hima sipata lɨpasi hima zamaana sɨmputa hamɨ himsa mant-a'a
tooth maangɨ maaga maanga maanga maanga maanga heqwaanga maanga maanka maage maana mank-ɨrɨ
tongue aai'wɨ aabgwa; aavwia taalɨta aaiwa tewa teva tewa meraanya kwaavlɨlɨ aaveona hyaalsa omas-a'a
leg sugwaaviaga avga sɨvɨla yanga sugwa lɨvya zuka zɨve sɨwla habgu' kwapɨtwalyɨ au'-ɨrɨ
louse iya ye yɨle iyaa'aa iya iya yaaqa iyaa ila nde' ila akɨrɨ-'o
dog sɨwia tayo jɨlɨka hive'aa suya lɨvaaya hivyeqa zɨwasa njɨlɨka tɨyo wakyɨ su'-ɨrɨ
bird inga inko yuta inga manɨwa mɨnavaaya yinga yɨhuva ntaqatɨ inko qaikwɨsa ko-'o
egg ki'mɨnga m̩ge (yu)kwaraka mnga hi'imɨya mɨnya qwi mɨna pantapta ṃge'; munke' mna kwaatani-patɨ; nameraa-'o
blood taangga taagi tawe hinge'aa kwe langaaya hangeqa saahana; yaa'mpaza mɨnjaaka taagi' msaasa nsɨtɨ-patɨ
bone enga' yanggai yagɨnya yanga yakina yakɨna yaanga yakana yankinta yɨnggai yekɨna antɨ-tatɨ
skin yaraa(na) yara(na) kɨlaaka hewa pa'a(me) paa(ga) hviwa (aa'ma)paaha kɨlaaka yarana aa'mosa ampɨ-patɨ
breast aamunga aamɨgo aa(ng)wɨnya aamga aanya aamɨna aangwa aamna aamɨnta aamugo' aamna amwɨtɨ'-ɨrɨ
tree ika' iga' ita iya isa iga iya iya ika igya isa i-patɨ
man oga avo; waako kwala qoka kwe'wa kwe; kwoyava qoka hwe kwala avo kwala wo-'o
woman aavagi abaagi bala aapaka amaa a'me; api apaka ape aampala avaagi aapala apop-aatɨ
sun sanggwa avgwo nyɨla mapa mape mapiya mapa (tɨqa) mape kwɨnja; nilya habgo' mapya ipɨ-'o
moon ema' aamnggo langwa qaamnga ki'yapa kaamɨna qaangwa haamna lampaaka imo' lamnyɨ waatɨ-'o
water yɨnunggu inaaga aalya e'aa kwe('ma) aaya eqa aaya aalya; wanya (i)naagu aalyɨ wapo'-o
fire ta'a ta(vɨ') dɨka ta ta'a tɨga ta tɨha ntɨka taa(vɨ') tɨsa sis-a'a
stone sa'anga andaga sɨla hawa tega laasa hika zasa sɨla haai hekyɨ naw-a'a
name avaa'nankana ntaga yaya (yavya) yav'a nyanyaawo yavya yavqa yave yavata taagɨ(va') yawyɨ ampɨ-patɨ
eat n̲eo' n̲amda' n̲ɨwa' qan̲'i inyo minyo an̲ki haṉkaha an̲aantapyɨ nɨmda' hisa n̲aatana nanataise
one naawona fonu' pɨrɨ' (na) fati (na) hunanɨnko uwa'na hɨnkwona ingava'na pɨrɨ'mɨna fono hɨnkwa'na nas-
two uwa faaina pɨrɨwaai (na) hivaa'u hukwego huvaa'u hɨnqwaaqwo huvaa'u pɨvɨraalna foya hulwaaqwɨ ya-

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Angan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). "Papua New Guinea languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22nd ed.). Dallas: SIL International.
  3. ^ a b
    • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.
  4. ^ NewGuineaWorld
  5. ^ The Oksapmin Kinship System Archived 2009-09-20 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved May 21, 2009.
  6. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.

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