International Phonetic Alphabet chart - International Phonetic Alphabet chart

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The following is the chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet, a standardized system of phonetic symbols devised and maintained by the International Phonetic Association.

Official chart

The official IPA chart, revised to 2020

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded

Consonants

Pulmonic consonants

Place Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant affricate ts dz t̠ʃ d̠ʒ ʈʂ ɖʐ
Non-sibilant affricate p̪f b̪v t̪θ d̪ð tɹ̝̊ dɹ̝ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ ɟʝ kx ɡɣ ɢʁ ʡʢ ʔh
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̠ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ɻ˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ̥ ʋ ɹ̥ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j ɰ̊ ɰ ʔ̞
Tap/flap ⱱ̟ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̆
Trill ʙ̥ ʙ r ɽ̊r̥ ɽr ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ
Lateral affricate ʈɭ̊˔ cʎ̝̊ ɟʎ̝ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ɭ˔ ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ̥ ʟ ʟ̠
Lateral tap/flap ɺ̥ ɺ ɭ̆ ʎ̆ ʟ̆

Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Non-pulmonic consonants

Ejective Stop ʈʼ ʡʼ
Affricate t̪θʼ tsʼ t̠ʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ qχʼ
Fricative ɸʼ θʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
Lateral affricate tɬʼ cʎ̝̊ʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ
Lateral fricative ɬʼ
Click
(top: velar;
bottom: uvular)
Tenuis



Voiced ɡʘ
ɢʘ
ɡǀ
ɢǀ
ɡǃ
ɢǃ
ɡǂ
ɢǂ
Nasal ŋʘ
ɴʘ
ŋǀ
ɴǀ
ŋǃ
ɴǃ
ŋǂ
ɴǂ
Tenuis lateral
Voiced lateral ɡǁ
ɢǁ
Nasal lateral ŋǁ
ɴǁ
Implosive Voiced ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Voiceless ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ᶑ̊ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̥

Co-articulated consonants

Auxiliary symbols

Diacritics
◌̥ ◌̊ Voiceless ◌̤ Breathy voiced ◌̪ ◌͆ Dental
◌̬ Voiced ◌̰ Creaky voiced ◌̺ Apical
◌ʰ Aspirated ◌̼ Linguolabial ◌̻ Laminal
◌̹ ◌͗ ◌˒ More rounded ◌ʷ Labialized ◌̃ Nasalized
◌̜ ◌͑ ◌˓ Less rounded ◌ʲ Palatalized ◌ⁿ Nasal release
◌̟ ◌˖ Advanced ◌ˠ Velarized ◌ˡ Lateral release
◌̠ ◌˗ Retracted ◌ˤ Pharyngealized ◌̚ No audible release
◌̈ Centralized ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ◌ᵊ Mid central vowel release
◌̽ Mid-centralized ◌̝ ◌˔ Raised ◌ᶿ Voiceless dental fricative release
◌̩ ◌̍ Syllabic ◌̞ ◌˕ Lowered ◌ˣ Voiceless velar fricative release
◌̯ ◌̑ Non-syllabic ◌̘ Advanced tongue root ◌ʼ Ejective
◌˞ Rhoticity ◌̙ Retracted tongue root ◌͡◌
◌͜◌
Affricate or double articulation
Suprasegmentals
ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
◌̆ Extra-short
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
Level tones
◌̋ ˥ Extra-high (top)
◌́ ˦ High
◌̄ ˧ Mid
◌̀ ˨ Low
◌̏ ˩ Extra-low (bottom)
ꜜ◌ Downstep
ꜛ◌ Upstep
Tone contours
◌̌ ˩˥ Rising
◌̂ ˥˩ Falling
◌᷄ ˧˥ High rising
◌᷅ ˩˧ Low rising
◌᷇ ˥˧ High falling
◌᷆ ˧˩ Low falling
◌᷈ ˧˦˨ Rising–falling
◌᷉ ˧˨˦ Falling–rising
↗︎ Global rise
↘︎ Global fall
Transcription
[ ] Phonetic transcription
/ / Phonemic transcription
( ) Indistinguishable utterance
⸨ ⸩ Sound obscured
{ } Prosodic notation

See also

External links

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