Safeyoka language - Safeyoka language
|Native to||Papua New Guinea|
|(2,390 cited 1980 census)|
Safeyoka, or Ampale, is an Angan language of Papua New Guinea. Other names of this language include Ambari, Ampeeli, Ampeeli-Wojokeso, and Ampele. According to a 1980 census, there were around 2,390 native speakers. Commonly known as Ampale, the dialect is called Wojokeso. Speakers of Ampale range from the Waffa River to the Banir River, which is located in the northern part of Papua New Guinea. The Wojokeso dialect is spoken by people who live in five villages where multiple districts, the Kaiapit, Mumeng and Menyama come together in the Morobe Province.
Subject Personal Pronouns
In the term stem of Ampale outlines, the object person affixes are included in them. Class 2 verb roots, /put/ and /kill/, they occur immediately following the root. Other verb roots immediately come before the root. Object person affixes include:
|First Person||Second Person||Third Person|
The Ampale language classifies with the Wojokeso dialect of the Angan language stock. According to B.A Hooley and K.A. McElhanon, the language is referred to as the "Languages of the Morobe District - New Guinea". The sentence types of the Wojokeso are pattern types. On non-final verbs, the Wojokeso links clauses together by the means of affixes or clitics.
The simple sentence formula is "+ Base: General Clause/Elliptical Clause + Terminal: Final Intonation." The sentence is explained by a single base and final intonation. In other words, the single base is expounded by the general clause. Single base moods include: Indicative, Interrogative, Dubitative, Information interrogative, Avolitional, and Exclamatory.
|General Clause 1 = Indicative||Indicative
Phrase: Hofɨko pmmalofo-foho
Native Translation: 'they came' English: 'They came'
Native Translation: 'come'
English: 'They didn't come.'
|General Clause 2 = Interrogative||Interrogative
Phrase: Nto pmmalofotaho
Native Translation: 'already came' English: 'Did they already come?'
Native Translation: 'neg-come'
English: 'Didn't they come?'
|General Clause 3 = Dubitative||Dubitative
Native Translation: 'come-they' English: 'Maybe they came'
Native Translation: 'come - maybe'
English: 'Maybe they didn't come'
|General Clause 4 = Information Interrogative||Information Interrogative
Phrase: Tɨhwo pmmalofoto
Native Translation: 'who came' English: 'Who came?'
|Negative Information Interrogative
Phrase: Tɨhwo mapɨ'njito
Native Translation: 'who neg-came' English: 'Who didn't come?'
|General Clause 5 = Avolitional||Avolitional
Native Translation: 'come-they' English: 'It's not good that they come.'
Phrase: Poyo imo'ntnnoho
Native Translation: 'dead become-you' English: 'It's not good that you die.'
|General Clause 6 = Exclamatory||Exclamatory
Native Translation: 'pig' English: 'It's a pig!'
Phrase: Peho'no pohinopu
Native Translation: 'why come-you' English: 'Shame on you for coming!'
The series sentence indicates multiple actions a person does. There is no grammatical distinction between temporal succession and temporal overlap. Usually used to explain actions which are preformed by a dual or plural subject. However, actions with this partial change in subject may also be classified as a sequence sentence.
The sequence sentence indicates an order of actions being completed by a subject, where base 1 differs from base 2. The action of the first base is usually completed before the action of the second base even begins. The deep structure of this sentence type is that it is purely based on succession.
This translates into "Darkness came and night mosquitoes bit us". This expresses temporal succession.
|Subjective||y-ontɨfitnne||They would, they will do|
|Unrealized Subjective||y-ontɨtinnesohilo||Would have done|
|Near Future||u-y-on ɨtfeho||They will do|
|Hortative-Imperative||u-y-ɨfe||Let them do it|
|Present Incomplete||y-alowofo||They are doing it|
|Present Complete||y-ohofo||They did it|
|Narrative Past||humi-y-ohofi||They did it|
|Near Past||i-malofo||They did it|
|Far Past||i-mentohofo||They did it a long time ago|
|Habitual Past||i-motofo||They used to do it regularly|
The Wojokeso has fifteen simple and six complex consonant phonemes. The points of articulation include bilabial, alveolar, alveopalatal and velar. The bilabial fricative phoneme is /p/, alveolar resonant phoneme /I/, alveopalatal stop phoneme /j/ and velar fricative phoneme /h/.
When two vowels occur contiguously, they are considered separate segments. Non-suspect sequences such as /ea/, /ae/, occur and sequences /ai/, /ia/ and /ʌu/, /uʌ/. The syllabic and pitch accent of these vowels consider the syllables to be separate. In the words of /hasamjʌhwʌ/ ~ /hasaʔemjʌhwʌ/ 'dragonfly'. /ʔ/ is optional between two vowels.
- Safeyoka at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Safeyoka". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Safeyoka". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
- Franklin, Karl J. (Karl James) (1973). The linguistic situation in the Gulf District and adjacent areas, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0858831007. OCLC 1288732.
- Angan languages are different : four phonologies. Healey, Phyllis M. Huntington Beach, Calif.: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1981. ISBN 088312212X. OCLC 8619473.CS1 maint: others (link)
- West, Dorothy. (1973). Wojokeso : sentence, paragraph, and discourse analysis. Canberra: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University. ISBN 0858830892. OCLC 1220916.